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Perlaksanaan dan amalan Gender Mainstreaming: Kajian ke atas sektor awam di Malaysia

Nur Syakiran Akmal, Ismail (2014) Perlaksanaan dan amalan Gender Mainstreaming: Kajian ke atas sektor awam di Malaysia. PhD. thesis, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.

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Abstract

Gender Mainstreaming (GM) is the process of assessing the implications of gender equality and empowerment for women and men of any planned action, including legislation, policies or programs in organizations and at the national and international levels. Gender mainstreaming, which was launched in 1995 at the Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing, is a global strategy used to promote gender equality. This study focuses on the implementation and practice of gender mainstreaming (GM) in Malaysia through an open system which is influenced by national and international issues. Although the concept was introduced in 1995, but the process was already started after independence, in 1956, in Malaysia. Though the GM has already happen, but until the year 2013, the issue of gender equality has yet to be resolved by Malaysia. Therefore, this study focuses on the implementation and practice of gender mainstreaming (GM) in Malaysia through an open system influenced by international and domestic issues. Three questions were posed through the study of the problems on (i) How do the Gender Mainstreaming implementation process occur in Malaysia in general?; (ii) To what extent does the Gender Mainstreaming occurred at the decision-making levels in public organizations in Malaysia? and; (iii) Does the Gender Mainstreaming process that occurs in the Ministry of Education (MOE) and the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation Malaysia (MOSTI) impacted on the power empowerment among decision-makers in both organizations? The research has three objectives. Firstly, the study examines an understanding of gender mainstreaming as a global approach that has been adapted within the Malaysian context. Secondly, the research analyzes the levels between implementation and practice in two case studies involving the Ministry of Education (MOE) and the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOSTI). Thirdly, this study analyzes the impact of GM on women’s empowerment in the public sector. In order to achieve these objectives, this study offers a theoretical framework adopted from a Model of Political System and Policy by Birkland (2001); Max Weber Theory (1946) and; the level of empowerment, by Sara Longwe (1991). The research is based on a qualitative research design. It used Inductive Thematic Analysis (ITA) and narrative analysis. Both methods are used to analyze interviews and analysis of content of various sources such as books, journals, documents at, and official statements. The collected data is the primary and secondary. Informants selected were mthe decision makers in both the ministries. The results from this study indicate several things. Firstly, the open system has forced a political process to take place in the formulation of a policy with a gender perspective. The implementation of this policy becomes the responsibility of all ministries in Malaysia. Secondly, the study indicates that gender mainstreaming has left greater impact in MOE compared to MOSTI because MOE is able to take into consideration the international and national discourse on gender due to its open organizational system. Thus, MOE is able to develop a number of gender responsive policies. Research finding also point out to the fact that women’s empowerment and gender awareness, especially through the role played by Gender Focal Persons (GFP) are significant factors in the successful implementation of gender mainstreaming at the organizational level. The study also shows that there is a disjuncture between implementation and practice of gender mainstreaming due to reliance on different actors at the leadership and management levels, implementers and the objectives of target organizations. Finally, the impact of gender mainstreaming process in both organizations is achieving the second level of the empowerment that are, the levels of welfare and access. The achievements up to the second level shows that the gender mainstreaming process need to be improved so that the level of empowerment could be achieved until to the level of acquiring power.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD.)
Subjects: J Political Science > JQ Political institutions and public administration (Asia)
Depositing User: Mr. Badrulsaman Hamid
Date Deposited: 02 Oct 2014 00:50
Last Modified: 24 Apr 2016 07:56
URI: http://etd.uum.edu.my/id/eprint/4120

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