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# An enhanced approximation mathematical model inventorying items in a multi-echelon system under a continuous review policy with probabilistic demand and lead-time

Ghafour, Karzan Mahdi (2016) An enhanced approximation mathematical model inventorying items in a multi-echelon system under a continuous review policy with probabilistic demand and lead-time. PhD. thesis, Universiti Utara Malaysia.

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## Abstract

An inventory system attempts to balance between overstock and understock to reduce the total cost and achieve customer demand in a timely manner. The
inventory system is like a hidden entity in a supply chain, where a large complete network synchronizes a series of interrelated processes for a manufacturer, in order to transform raw materials into final products and distribute them to customers. The optimality of inventory and allocation policies in a supply chain for a cement
industry is still unknown for many types of multi-echelon inventory systems. In multi-echelon networks, complexity exists when the inventory issues appear in multiple tiers and whose performances are significantly affected by the demand and lead-time. Hence, the objective of this research is to develop an enhanced approximation mathematical model in a multi-echelon inventory system under a continuous review policy subject to probabilistic demand and lead-time. The probability distribution function of demand during lead-time is established by developing a new Simulation Model of Demand During Lead-Time (SMDDL) using simulation procedures. The model is able to forecast future demand and demand during lead-time. The obtained demand during lead-time is used to develop a Serial
Multi-echelon Inventory (SMEI) model by deriving the inventory cost function to compute performance measures of the cement inventory system. Based on the performance measures, a modified distribution multi-echelon inventory (DMEI) model with the First Come First Serve (FCFS) rule (DMEI-FCFS) is derived to determine the best expected waiting time and expected number of retailers in the system based on a mean arrival rate and a mean service rate. This research established five new distribution functions for the demand during lead-time. The
distribution functions improve the performance measures, which contribute in reducing the expected waiting time in the system. Overall, the approximation model provides accurate time span to overcome shortage of cement inventory, which in turn fulfil customer satisfaction.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD.) Ramli, Razamin and Zaibidi, Nerda Zura 6025 Approximation multi-echelon inventory model, continuous review policy, probabilistic demand and lead-time, simulation procedures, FCFS rule Q Science > QA Mathematics Awang Had Salleh Graduate School of Arts & Sciences 05 Feb 2017 15:38 05 Apr 2021 02:21 Awang Had Salleh Graduate School of Arts and Sciences Ramli, Razamin and Zaibidi, Nerda Zura https://etd.uum.edu.my/id/eprint/6025