UUM Electronic Theses and Dissertation
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A game-based psychotherapy intervention model for memory disorder using neurofeedback approach

Lim, Sie Yi Laura (2022) A game-based psychotherapy intervention model for memory disorder using neurofeedback approach. Masters thesis, Universiti Utara Malaysia.

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Pharmacological treatments for memory disorders are expensive and cause side effects. As an alternative, non-pharmacological interventions are introduced to cater for the drawbacks. Digital games for example are introduced as an alternative to rehabilitation in neuro-psychological due to their strengths. However, concrete and robust evidence is required to acquire effective designs and implementation of an appropriate game-based intervention to serve its purposes. Current cognitive interventions lack reasoning capabilities and did not utilize neuron activities feedback. Thus, this study proposes game-based psychotherapy intervention model for memory disorder by using neurofeedback approach. Neurofeedback is capable to target particular components in the human brain to optimize cognitive functions. Design Science Research methodology with five phases has been adapted in this study. Eight exogenous and six instantaneous factors were identified through an extensive literature review as the main components to develop the model. Network Oriented model was utilized in designing the model by integrating the identified exogenous and instantaneous factors based on its influence and relationships. Verification of the proposed model was conducted by five experts and the validation was performed via three psychotherapy experiments conducted within 14 weeks involving 15 elderlies with early symptoms of memory disorder. Model validation was performed by analyzing EEG data recorded from six channels of Emotiv reader which are associated to the factors in the model by considering a broader score range and ceiling effects of 56.6%. This model comprises six instantaneous and eight exogenous factors together with their relationships from three main components; patient, game, and environmental support. Findings show that the verified and refined model is capable to provide good insights that are measured in eight dimensions; clarity, visibility, comprehensive, evolutionary, flexibility, accuracy, understandability, and effectiveness. Experts have affirmed the workability of the model with high acceptance. The proposed model is proven essential in improving the cognitive function of the neuro-degenerated brain, intending to preserve health during the ageing process. The incorporation of neurofeedback has contributed significantly to the theoretical aspect by improving the accuracy of data analysis in comparison to conventional methods. The model can be used as a guideline in planning for suitable cognitive training and rehabilitation for people with memory disorders. Psychologists and cognitive scientists are able to get deeper insights into the model to apply it to other domains such as traumatic brain injury.

Item Type: Thesis (Masters)
Supervisor : Che Pa, Noraziah
Item ID: 9762
Uncontrolled Keywords: Games-based intervention, Memory disorder, Neurofeedback, Psychotherapy intervention model
Subjects: B Philosophy. Psychology. Religion > BF Psychology
R Medicine > RC Internal medicine > RC0321 Neuroscience. Biological psychiatry. Neuropsychiatry
Divisions: Awang Had Salleh Graduate School of Arts & Sciences
Date Deposited: 17 Aug 2022 07:59
Last Modified: 17 Aug 2022 07:59
Department: Awang Had Salleh Graduate School of Art & Sciences
Name: Che Pa, Noraziah
URI: https://etd.uum.edu.my/id/eprint/9762

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